The Transfer Box is a device specific to 4×4 vehicles. It is essentially an extra Gearbox attached to the back of the main Gearbox that controls the selection of High and Low ratios. This doubles the number of gears available to the vehicle whilst simplifying their selection.
On a Land Rover, the Transfer Box is also responsible for locking the central differential between the front and rear propshafts. Specifically, the Transfer Box transfers power to the front propshaft, which is also connected to the differential, which sends on power to the rear propshaft. When the differential is locked, it is effectively removed and power to both axles is constant.
The Transfer Box also takes the speed measurement for the Speedometer from a worm gear on the outside of the housing.
Land Rovers have been known to have solid Transfer Boxes through the years, and so haven’t been updated in their design that often.
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